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Discuss the Biological Approach in Psychology Essay - …
Implementing each of these variants in psychological research may prove beneficial to the researcher when properly appropriated in psychological exploration....
Slade, M. (2010). Mental illness and well–being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. , , 26. doi:10.1186/1472–6963–10–26. A new evidence base is emerging, which focuses on well–being. This makes it possible for health services to orientate around promoting well–being as well as treating illness, and so to make a reality of the long–standing rhetoric that health is more than the absence of illness. The aim of this paper is to support the re–orientation of health services around promoting well–being. Mental health services are used as an example to illustrate the new knowledge skills which will be needed by health professionals.
Discuss the biological approach in psychology
Catania, A. C. (2001). Positive psychology and positive reinforcement. , (1), 86–87. doi:10.1037/0003–066X.56.1.86. Comments on M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi's (see record 2000–13324–001) introduction to the special issue on positive psychology (American Psychologist, 2000[Jan], Vol 55). The commenting author suggests that to achieve a major scientific shift to positive psychology (which could complement the dominant disease–oriented focus in mental health), psychologists should reconcile and merge the two foci; this could be best done by gradually infusing positive psychology into current models of psychopathology and treatment. To ease the integration and transition from a psychopathology–focused to a strength–focused approach in therapeutic psychology, programmatic research might be necessary; three possible areas of attention are discussed.
Chirkov, V., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self–determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well–being. , (1), 97–110. doi:10.1037/0022–35188.8.131.52. On the basis of self–determination theory ( R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and cultural descriptions drawn from H. C. Triandis (1995), the authors hypothesized that (a) individuals from different cultures internalize different cultural practices; (b) despite these differences, the relative autonomy of individuals' motivation for those practices predicts well–being in all 4 cultures examined; and (c) horizontal practices are more readily internalized than vertical practices across all samples. Five hundred fifty–nine persons from South Korea, Russia, Turkey and the United States participated. Results supported the hypothesized relations between autonomy and well–being across cultures and gender. Results also suggested greater internalization of horizontal relative to vertical practices. Discussion focuses on the distinction between autonomy and individualism and the relative fit of cultural forms with basic psychological needs.
The Biological Approach - A-Level Psychology - …
"Positive psychology represents a partial revival of the Maslowian vision and a rejection of its epistemological and methodological breadth. According to Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000), Maslow strayed from the 'true path' of science and thereby blurred the boundaries between popular and academic psychology. As Taylor (2001) has noted, such criticisms do little justice to the complexity of Maslow's thought, but perhaps more disconcertingly, they reveal the degree to which psychology is still mired in the same 'safety science' insecurities that Maslow identified all those years ago. Psychologists are still fretting over their disciplinary masculinity, still feeling the need to declare themselves 'unblushingly scientists first' (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2001, p.89) and still allowing simplistic, dated appeals to salvation through positivistic science to pass as intellectual innovation. In such a context, Maslow's example of intellectual openness, critical self-reflection, and philosophical curiosity is as relevant as ever" (Nicholson, I., 2007, p. 27).
"I think it would be more felicitous to talk about today's movement as "third–generation positive psychology." "First–generation positive psychology" would then refer to the self–fulfillment agenda of humanistic psychology, and "second– generation positive psychology" to the intelligence–and adaptability approaches prevailing at the close of the 20th century, as well as to those current versions of positive psychology that place less emphasis on authenticity, meaning, and morality, and more on subjective well–being, than Seligman and Peterson do. Woolflock and Wasserman (2005) suggest an alternative terminology according to which today's virtue–based positive psychology would be counted as "second–generation," while positive psychology in its original formulation (see, especially, Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi's, 2000, manifesto) would be "first–generation" (cf. also Held, 2005). I would object to this terminology because it not only overlooks positive psychology's 20th–century heritage, but also it assumes that Seligman had a radical change of mind concerning the nature of the good life between 2000 and his 2004 work with Peterson. I fail, however, to see any evidence to support this. Quite the contrary: Seligman already waxes virtue–ethical in his 2000 piece with Csikszentmihalyi (see, especially, p. 8)." (Kristjansson, 2010, p. 298).
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The biological approach looks at psychology from a ..
''I came to UGA to do research, help develop the biological engineering curriculum, and teach biological engineering courses. For the work I do with undergraduates, I am most pleased with its 'two-way street' nature: providing real-world solutions to problems of people at the bottom of the economic pyramid and enhancing their earnings in a sustainable way. This approach—involving the development and deployment of simple technologies that are profitable for all those involved in the distribution chain—has been referred to as social entrepreneurship.''
IB Psychology Biological Level of Analysis
"Given the inescapability of such cultural values and assumptions, we recommend giving up our pretensions to value–neutrality, instead adopting an approach that Bellah and his colleagues have termed or (Bellah et al., 1985; Haan, Bellah, Rabinow, & Sullivan, 1983)From this perspective, positive psychology, like the social sciences more broadly, would be acknowledged to be 'a tradition, or set of traditions, deeply rooted in the philosophical and humanistic (and, to more than a small extent, the religious) history of the West' (Bellah et al., 1985, p. 301)" (Christopher & Campbell, 2008, pps. 691–692).
IB Psychology Biological Level ..
"Mr. Seligman says that although he recognizes standards may vary across cultures, he believes in universals. 'We evolved biologically and created universal moral virtues.' Yet, he insists, 'I would not pretend to say what they are.'" (Ruark, 1999, p. 8).
23/03/2015 · What Is Biological Psychology
"Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) and Peterson and Seligman (2004) argued that their reasoning, and their prescriptions for happiness and well–being, are based on empirical evidence, obtained via a strict adherence to the positivist scientific method, which is presumed to provide a high degree of transparency. 'What seemed to be lacking, however, was a vision that justified the attitude and the methodology. I was looking for a scientific approach to human behavior, but I never dreamed that this could yield a value–free understanding' (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, p. 7). Far from 'yielding a value–free understanding,' positive psychology has unwittingly tied itself to a neo–liberal economic and political discourse, as can be seen from Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) and Peterson and Seligman's (2004) prescriptions, which are underpinned by a philosophy based on responsibility, moderation, and work ethic, all essential values for the effective operation of a neo–liberal economy" (McDonald & O'Callaghan, 2008, 138).
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