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Freud, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
Freud, S. (1905). Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume VII (1901-1905): A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works, 123-246
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Freud three essays theory sexuality summary - …
Larsson, H., Andershed, H., & Lichtenstein, P. (2006). A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. (2), 221-230. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.221 The psychopathic personality can be conceptualized as three interrelated dimensions, (a) an interpersonal style of glibness, grandiosity, and manipulation; (b) an affective disposition of callousness, lack of empathy, and unemotionality; and (c) a behavioral/lifestyle dimension of impulsivity, need for stimulation, and irresponsibility, underpinning a higher order construct, psychopathic personality. The authors used a self-report questionnaire (The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory) to study the importance of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality traits in a sample of 1,090 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Results showed a strong genetic influence behind the higher order "psychopathic personality" factor, underpinned by the three psychopathic personality dimensions. Over and above the effects to the higher order factor, significant unique genetic influences were also found in the callous/unemotional and in the impulsive/irresponsible dimension, but not in the grandiose/manipulative dimension. The authors propose that this latent psychopathic personality factor is a meaningful target for future etiological research. . . . In summary, by using a hierarchical common pathway model, this study offers insights into the etiology of the psychopathic personality constellation in adolescence. We showed that genetic effects accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, which makes it a promising target for future research.
Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Hilton, N. Z., Lalumiere, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (2007). Coercive and precocious sexuality as a fundamental aspect of psychopathy. (1), 1-27. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.1.1 Sexual behavior is closely associated with delinquency and crime. Although psychopaths, by definition, have many short-term sexual relationships, it has not been shown that sexuality is a core aspect of psychopathy. A Darwinian view of psychopathy led to the hypothesis that psychopaths have a unique sexuality involving early, frequent, and coercive sex. Our subjects were 512 sex offenders assessed on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). Five variables reflecting early, frequent, and coercive sex loaded on the same principal component in exploratory factor analysis on a subset of the sample, whereas PCL-R items pertaining to adult sexual behavior did not. Confirmatory factor analysis of the remaining subjects yielded a measurement model containing three inter-correlated factors-the traditional two PCL-R factors, and coercive and precocious sexuality. Taxometric analyses gave evidence of a natural discontinuity underlying coercive and precocious sexuality. Coercive and precocious sexuality yielded statistically significant associations with other study variables predicted by the Darwinian hypothesis. The present findings are consistent with prior empirical findings and support the hypothesis that psychopathy has been a nonpathological, reproductively viable, alternate life history strategy.
Definition of Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ..
In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.
Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2001). Refining the construct of psychopathy: Towards a hierarchical model. (2), 171-188. doi:10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.168 Psychopathy is characterized by diverse indicators. Clinical accounts have emphasized 3 distinct facets: interpersonal, affective, and behavioral. Research using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), however, has emphasized a 2-factor model. A review of the literature on the PCL-R and related measures of psychopathy, together with confirmatory factor analysis of PCL-R data from North American participants, indicates that the 2-factor model cannot be sustained. A 3-factor hierarchical model was developed in which a coherent superordinate factor, Psychopathy, is underpinned by 3 factors: Arrogant and Deceitful Interpersonal Style, Deficient Affective Experience, and Impulsive and Irresponsible Behavioral Style. The model was cross-validated on North American and Scottish PCL-R data, Psychopathy Screening Version data, and data derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) antisocial personality disorder field trial. . . . We are advocating the future revision of the full PCL-R to assist research into the nature of the disorder; however, we strongly emphasize the necessity of continuing to use the full PCL-R for risk assessment and other applied purposes. [The authors criticise the two factors analysis of PCL-R. They argue that a more appropriate account should include three factors. The interpersonal/affective factor is separated in an interpersonal and an abnormal affect component. Factor I: Arrogant and deceitful interpersonal items: 1. Glibness/superficial charm 2. Grandiose sense of self-worth 4. Pathological lying 5. Conning/manipulative. Factor II: Deficient affective experience: 6. Lack of remorse or guilt 7. Shallow affect 8. Callous/lack of empathy 16. Failure to accept responsibility for own actions. Factor III: 3. Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom 9. Parasitic lifestyle 13. Lack of realistic, long-term goals 14. Impulsivity 15. Irresponsibility. Remaining items that do not fall under any factor: 10. Poor behavioural controls 11. Promiscuous sexual behaviour 12. Early behavioural problems 17. Many short-term marital relationship 18. Juvenile delinquency 19. Revocation of conditional release 20. Criminal versatility. For a three factor analysis of psychopathy in childhood and adolescence, see Frick and Hare 2001b.]
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PEP Web - Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905)
About The Book: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, sometimes titled Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, is a 1905 work by Sigmund Freud which advanced his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood.
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ..
Gurley, (2009) provided a helpful summary: There is much confusion surrounding the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and its counterparts, psychopathy, and sociopathy. Some individuals refer to the three as the same diagnosis but with different names (e.g., Blackburn, 1988; Rabin, 1986; Stout, 2005). Others differentiate between the three terms in various ways. For example, Lykken (1995, 1998) believes that psychopaths and sociopaths represent subcategories of ASPD. He goes on to state that although psychopaths and sociopaths have similar patterns of behavior, the two are distinct disorders. More specifically, Lykken believes that the personality and behavior of a psychopath is due to a congenital difference in temperament whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to unsocialized character caused by parental failures. In other words, the personality and behavior a psychopath is a result of genetics whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to the environment. Hare's conceptualization of the differences between psychopath and sociopathy is similar to Lykken's (Babiak & Hare, 2006; Hare, 2007). Hare (e.g., 1993, 1996, 2007) does differentiate between psychopathy and ASPD, stating that APSD is characterized by criminal behavior whereas psychopathy is a set of personality traits that can lead to criminal behavior. According to Hare (2008), the consensus in the field of psychology is that psychopathy and ASPD are distinct disorders. . . . [in] DSM-I, 1952, one of the disorders that experienced a name change was psychopathy, which referred to a personality disturbance consisting of traits that have been delineated by Cleckley (1964) including superficial charm, manipulativeness, and irresponsibility (see Cleckley, 1998, for a complete list of criteria). According to Jenkins (1960), the American Psychiatric Association reported that the term, "psychopath" was a poor term that needed to be changed. Their reasoning behind it may have been the confusion of the term psychopathy with psychotic - two similar sounding terms that represent very different disorders. Thus, in the initial edition of the DSM, the disorder formally known as psychopathy became Sociopathic Personality Disorder, Antisocial Reaction (American Psychiatric Association, 1952; Jenkins, 1960). . . . In addition to the Antisocial Reaction, the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association included criteria for a similar disorder called "Dyssocial Reaction." . . . The distinction between Dyssocial Reaction and Antisocial Reaction is remarkably similar to the distinction some modern day researchers have made between sociopathy and psychopathy (e.g., Lykken, 1995, 1998, see above for description); the etiology of Antisocial Reaction was genetic whereas the etiology of the Dyssocial Reaction was environmental.
Three Essays On the Theory Of Sexuality by Freud, …
Freud never focused specifically on criminal behavior but he emphasized that modern civilization is built upon the suppression of instincts and that each individual must surrender some part of his or her aggressive or vindictive inclination. An individual who has an unyielding constitution and cannot suppress instinct becomes a criminal — unless his social position is high enough or his exceptional activities enable him to be seen as a great man or a hero (the narcissist) — paraphrased from Freud (1908) 'Civilized' sexual morality and modern nervous illness; Penguin Freud Library volume 12. Freud saw a constitutional predisposition to criminality — expressed as a weakness of repression. Freud also distinguished psychopathy as a guiltless crime — the psychopath develops no moral institutions — versus criminals who commit crimes out of a sense of guilt — deliberately creating situations where their punishment will be inevitable expressed as a manifestation of the unconscious guilt. (Fonagy & Target, 1996).
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