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Paper #1 Due – Blood Spatter Analysis
Responsibilities and Daily Activities
Blood Spatter Analysts have a rather limited variety of responsibilities when compared to other crime-scene related officials.
- A .25 caliber shell casing was found on the bathroom floor near the sink
- It was located on top of a small pool of Travis Alexander's blood, which shows that he was shot after already being injuried
- Both the casing and bullet found in the victim were unable to be traced back to a specific weapon because one hadn't been discovered
- This is quite a shame seeing as scientists could have compared multiple aspects like firing pin impressions, gunshot residue, rifling impresssions, and even fingerprints.
the identification of fired bullets, cartridge casings, or other ammunition components as having been fired from a specific weapon
the inside diameter of a gun barrel, in hundredths of an inch or millimeters
marks left behind when a harder surface impacts a softer surface
- From the below picture, we can conclude that Travis Alexander's left hand was facing down because the blood settled towards his palm at the autopsy
- The white spots on his fingers and palm tell us where his hand was resting on the floor
- Since the blood seen is a dark red and purple color, we might indicate that it's usual
Color discoloration of a corpse caused by gravity.
Review the Blood Spatter Analysis tutorial and see the table below:
CLASSIFICATION OF BLOODSTAINS THROUGH TAXONOMY
Practically speaking, the low-medium-high velocity terms can be confusing and have sometimes been used interchangeably. The future of bloodstain pattern analysis will be based on description. Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) has established classifications of stains known as taxonomy of stains and the experts in the field have established the classification of bloodstains and patterns based on a taxonomic approach.
A taxonomy is defined as a set of laws or principles for classification. The idea of taxonomy is derived from biology where organisms are classified by shared characteristics of varying degrees that also share a hierarchical relationship. The hierarchical nature of the taxonomy is significant in its application. At the top are broad categories. Moving down the hierarchy, the criteria become more and more refined and thus the conclusion about a classification becomes more distinct.
The bloodstains and patterns are classified based on their physical features of size, shape, location, concentration and distribution. Classification however, is but one step in the overall analysis. Classification sets the stage for the analyst to define more effectively a source event for any given stain.
DEFINTION OF TERMS
Gardner and Bevel (In Press and 2004) have grouped bloodstain patterns into two basic categories; Passive stains and Dynamic stains.
Passive stains result from an action other than a directed force to a blood mass. Examples would the bloodstain found in a crime scene from transfer or loss of blood by the victim. Blood dripping, contact with bloody objects, which can further be categorized as contact patterns, drip patterns, drip trails, blood pools or flows or blood clots.
Dynamic stains are created by forceful events where fluid blood is projected out from a source under some force or compression. Dynamic bloodstain patterns include spatter, castoff patterns, arterial patterns, and splashes. There is an impact mechanism or projection of fluid. Examples of dynamic stains would be Spatter Patterns, Castoff Patterns, Arterial Patterns, Wipe and Splash Patterns, etc.
CLASSIC BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS
Spatter Patterns occur when a blood mass is broken up into droplets. The droplets are projected out from the origin to the surrounding surfaces within the scene. Blood spatter can occur on a variety of surfaces, such as carpet, wood, tile, wallpaper, clothing, etc. The type of surface the blood strikes affects the amount of the resulting spatter, including the size and appearance of the blood drops. Also how the blood was deposited such as dripping blood, spilled blood or blood, which has been projected.
Projected bloodstains are created when an exposed blood source is subjected to an action or force, greater than the force of gravity. The size, shape, and number of resulting stains will depend, primarily, on the amount of force utilized to strike the blood source.
Arterial patterns result from blood projected into the scene under pressure form the artery or heart. There are distinctive physical characteristic in the arterial patterns, marked with the typical bright red color of oxygenated blood, as well as the spiked appearance of the blood being released under pressure from the breached artery. These patterns are referred to as arterial spurt, spurting or arterial gushing and are used interchangeably.
Pattern transfer occurs when the wet bloody object comes into contact with another surface.
Splash patterns occur when a volume of blood is projected into a scene with minimal force characterized by a large central stain exhibiting minimal distortion. There will be very little satellite spatter present. They most often appear as large-volume patterns.
A wipe pattern occurs when an object moves through a preexisting bloodstain. Sometimes the object that wiped through the blood can be identified, for example a broom. In addition the direction can be ascertained.
Saturation patterns occur when blood had been drawn into porous materials such as rugs, cloth, and clothing and usually tend to destroy other blood patterns of interest.
Body image patterns occur when the bleeding body has been lying in the blood, which seeps from the wounds. The blood pools form around the outline of the body and as the blood solids separate from the serum the original position of the body is imaged on the surface.
DOCUMENTING BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS
If the crime scene technician is not trained in bloodstain pattern analysis it is imperative that the crime investigators obtain complete documentation of any bloodstains or patterns both with and without rule of measure. Never assume that all the bloodstain patterns belong to the victim. This is particularly true in cases involving multiple stabbings with sharp-edged instruments or weapons. Self-wounding by the offender is a common occurrence. There are some of the classic patterns such as Directionality, Cast-off Bloodstains, Swipe marks, Pattern Transfer, Saturation, Arterial Patterns, Drip Patterns and other examples of bloodstain dynamics, which should noted and documented by the investigator at the scene.
Photographing the Bloodstain Evidence
Recording the bloodstain patterns in the scene is a major facet of the investigation. It is extremely important that this be accomplished before anything is touched or moved at the scene. Photographs should be taken depicting the overall scene followed by medium range and close-up views of the patterns. A scale of measure should be included with the close-up photographs.
Sketches and Diagrams
The is a simple line drawing that indicates the position of the body in relation to and objects in the scene. It supplements both the written reports and the crime scene photographs. Photographs, because of camera perspective and distortion, do not always depict the exact location in which objects are situated or the relation of one object to another. The crime scene sketch is an excellent visual aid, which allows for the removal of unnecessary details and the inclusion of significant material. A sketch f the bloodstain pattern will contain only essential items necessary for the analysis, whereas regular crime scene photographs will be overcrowded with detail.
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is a discipline, which requires formal training coupled with years of practical experience. The discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis considers the location, shape, size, distribution and other physical characteristics of the bloodstains in the scene. The Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis entitled (SWGSTAIN) was created in 2002 and has established many of the current protocols.
As the author of Practical Homicide Investigation and Series Editor I encourage investigators to develop an understanding of the applied science of BPA, which can produce strong, solid evidence. I also recommend the following textbooks on BPA. They are . Second Edition by Tom Bevel and Ross Gardner (In Press 3rd Edition), by Stuart James, Paul Kish and T. Paulette Sutton and by Ross Gardner.
Vernon J. Geberth, M.S., M.P.S. author of the textbook, , 2006.
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Before applying, you need to complete a minimum of 40 hours of approved courses dealing with Blood Spatter Analysis, and must then receive a 75% or higher on the certification test.
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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Essay - 395 Words
If you’re a Blood Splatter Analyst, you’re a type of . You accomplish your work through a process known as bloodstain pattern analysis (), which uses a combination of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics to determine, the movement, direction, and position of victims while they were shedding blood. You also help decipher clues about the weapon or object that caused the bloodshed, the number of impacts during an incident, and the sequence of events during a crime.
Blood Spatter Analysis - Research Papers - Dirtyblanket
The job of a Blood Splatter Analyst is to read the blood at crime scenes as if it’s ink on a page. Whether it’s a trace amount — a fleck or spot, for instance — or a substantial sum, it’s the Blood Splatter Analyst’s job to examine the evidence to determine if a crime has occurred and, if so, what happened.
The evidence that was provided by the Blood Splatter Analysis ..
A Blood Spatter Analyst needs to be ready to inspect a crime scene (or any area with a blood spatter) at any time, similar to a Crime Scene Investigator.
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